Given name: Izolda Family name: Kowalska-Grajpel
a Jew, The People's Army (Armia Ludowa) commander, Bronislaw Kowalski's wife
information in footnotes
The author started to write on 5 January 1944, and the last entry is dated 14 January 1945. The diary was written in ten, common, chequered school notebooks. Written irregularly. Bermanowa probably took a pen in her hand only when she either found the time or when she felt strong enough. Successive entries, dated scrupulously, written in Polish, were written in occupied Warsaw ('in hiding'), then in occupied ('free') capital and in a number of places near Warsaw (again 'on the Aryan papers'). The first event described took place during the Polish-German War of 1939, the latest - three days before the liberation of Warsaw (17 January 1945).